Effects of Estradiol and Estrogen on Mood and Mental Health

By  //  June 21, 2023

The intricate relationship between hormones and mental health has long been a topic of interest in psychology and neuroscience. 

Among the various hormones that impact emotional well-being, Estradiol vs Estrogen has garnered considerable attention.

Estradiol is the primary form of Estrogen in premenopausal women. Estrogen, a class of hormones including Estradiol, plays crucial roles in regulating physiological processes within the body, including brain function.

Understanding the effects of Estradiol and Estrogen on mood and mental health is of great significance. 

These hormones influence neurotransmitter systems and neurotrophic factors in mood regulation and emotional well-being. 

Fluctuations or declines in Estradiol levels have been linked to mood disturbances such as irritability, anxiety, and depression. 

At the same time, Estrogen-based hormone therapies have shown the potential to alleviate these symptoms. 

By exploring the effects of Estradiol and Estrogen on mood and mental health, we can gain insights into the complex interplay between hormones and psychological well-being. 

Understanding Estradiol and Estrogen

The ovaries primarily produce it, although the adrenal glands and fat tissues synthesize smaller amounts. 

Estradiol levels fluctuate throughout the menstrual cycle, with peak levels occurring during the mid-cycle (around ovulation) and declining in the luteal phase. 

During menopause, there is a significant decrease in estradiol production, leading to hormonal changes and associated symptoms.

Estrogen, on the other hand, is a class of hormones that includes estradiol, estrone, and estriol. Estrogen receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the brain. 

These receptors allow estrogen to exert its effects on different physiological functions.

In mood and mental health, estradiol and estrogen are crucial in regulating brain neurotransmitters and chemical messengers. 

They affect the production, release, and reuptake of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, all involved in mood regulation. 

Estrogen also modulates the activity of various neuropeptides and neurotrophic factors, which influence brain plasticity, neuroprotection, and mood regulation.

Understanding the functions of estradiol and estrogen is vital for comprehending their effects on mood and mental health. 

The fluctuations in estradiol levels during the menstrual cycle and the decline in estrogen levels during menopause can contribute to mood disturbances, including irritability, anxiety, and depression. 

Additionally, estrogen-based hormone therapies, such as oral contraceptives or Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), can impact mood symptoms. 

It is worth noting that the effects of these hormones on mood can vary among individuals. 

It depends on factors such as hormone dosage, individual sensitivity, and pre-existing mental health conditions.

Moreover, estradiol and estrogen have implications for cognitive function and mental well-being. 

Research suggests that estradiol supports memory, attention, and executive functions. 

Declining estrogen levels during menopause have been associated with cognitive changes, including difficulties with memory and concentration. 

Hormone therapy involving estrogen has shown potential benefits in preserving cognitive function and reducing the risk of developing dementia in postmenopausal women. 

However, further research is necessary to understand these effects and their long-term implications fully.

Effects on mood and emotional well-being

Researchers think that changes or drops in Estradiol levels can cause mood problems like irritability, anxiety, and sadness. 

Estrogen levels rise during a woman’s menstrual cycle, making her happier. 

However, a quick drop in Estrogen levels just before menstruation can cause PMS symptoms. 

In the same way, mood swings, worry, and depression can happen when Estrogen levels change during perimenopause and menopause.

Also, oral contraceptives and Hormone Replacement Treatment (HRT), both based on Estrogen, have been shown to change mood. 

If a woman takes an oral contraceptive with more Estrogen, her mood problems may improve. 

Also, Estrogen-based HRT has been shown to help some women with their menopause symptoms, like mood swings. 

But hormone therapies can affect people’s moods depending on the amount of hormones given, how sensitive each person is to hormones, and whether or not they already have a mental health problem.

Cognitive function and mental well-being 

Estrogens are also linked to brain health and how well your mind works. 

Studies show Estrogen may help memory, attention, and other mental tasks. 

During menopause, when Estrogen levels drop, there are changes in the brain that can make it hard to remember things or focus. 

Estrogen-based hormone therapy has shown some possible benefits for keeping cognitive function and lowering the risk of dementia in women who have gone through menopause. 

But more study must be done to fully understand these effects and what they mean in the long run.

It’s essential to remember that the link between Estradiol vs Estrogen and mental health is complicated and comprises many different factors. 

Hormone levels are affected by other biological, psychological, and social factors, and hormone sensitivity and reaction vary from person to person. 

Also, mental health problems like depression and worry can be caused by several things other than hormonal changes.


Estradiol and Estrogen significantly affect mood, mental health, and how well your brain works. 

Estradiol levels can change during menstruation, perimenopause, and menopause, affecting mood.

Estrogen-based hormone therapy may also affect mood issues.

In the same way, Estradiol affects how well your brain works, and Estrogen hormone treatment may help keep your brain healthy.

Understanding how Estradiol and Estrogen affect mental health is essential if you want to help people who are having mood problems. 

Especially during critical times in their lives like menstruation, perimenopause, and menopause. 

Knowing how hormones affect mental health can help us learn more about what causes mood disorders and create personalized treatment plans to help people feel better emotionally.