An Exploration of the Far-Reaching Impact of AFFF on the Environment

By  //  March 14, 2024

Firefighting has long been a crucial aspect of preserving life and property. With it comes the use of various firefighting agents, including aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF). While AFFF has proven effective in suppressing flammable liquid fires, its environmental consequences have become a growing concern. 

In this article, we will dive into the extensive impact of AFFF on the environment, shedding light on its far-reaching consequences.

The Origins of AFFF

AFFF, developed in the 1960s, was a significant breakthrough in fire suppression technology. It became widely adopted due to its unique ability to form a protective layer on flammable liquid surfaces, preventing the re-ignition of fires.


Initially utilized by the military, AFFF quickly found its way into various sectors, including industrial facilities, airports, and firefighting organizations. 


According to ITRC, the formulation of AFFF typically includes a combination of water, fluorochemical surfactants, and stabilizing agents. This allowed for rapid deployment and effective firefighting in scenarios involving combustible liquids.

Persistent Organic Pollutants

One of the primary environmental concerns associated with AFFF is the presence of PFAS. This is a group of synthetic chemicals notorious for their persistence in the environment. PFAS compounds are incorporated into AFFF to impart the water-repellent and film-forming properties crucial for its firefighting effectiveness. 

Unfortunately, these compounds do not readily break down, leading to long-term environmental contamination. PFAS have been detected in soil, water bodies, and even in the blood of wildlife and humans, raising alarm about their potential health impacts.

Groundwater Contamination

AFFF’s journey into groundwater begins when it is deployed to combat fires. The runoff from firefighting activities, containing residual AFFF, can percolate through soil layers and reach underground aquifers.

Once in the groundwater, PFAS can persist for extended periods, affecting drinking water supplies. According to Earthjustice, PFAS has contaminated groundwater in at least 38 states. This poses a significant challenge for communities relying on wells and groundwater sources, as the contamination may go undetected for prolonged periods.

Impact on Aquatic Ecosystems

AFFF runoff has severe consequences for aquatic ecosystems. As it enters water bodies, the PFAS-laden foam disrupts the delicate balance of these environments. The chemicals accumulate in aquatic organisms, leading to bioaccumulation up the food chain. 

This, in turn, affects the health and reproductive capabilities of fish and other aquatic species. The ecological ramifications extend to disruptions in biodiversity, with potential long-term consequences for the health of entire ecosystems.

Soil Degradation and Agricultural Concerns

In agricultural areas, the impact of AFFF extends beyond water sources. The chemicals in AFFF can infiltrate the soil, affecting the quality and fertility of agricultural land. Crops grown in contaminated soil may absorb PFAS, raising concerns about food safety. 

Livestock, too, can be exposed to these contaminants through contaminated water sources. This furthers the need for sustainable firefighting practices to safeguard both the environment and the food supply chain.

Legal Ramifications and Lawsuits

As the environmental impact of AFFF becomes more apparent, legal actions have proliferated. Communities, environmental groups, and individuals affected by the contamination have initiated AFFF lawsuits against manufacturers and users. 

The litigation is evolving, with courts recognizing the responsibility of entities involved in the production and application of AFFF to address the environmental fallout. highlights that a total of 7,367 lawsuits have been filed in AFFF multidistrict litigation as of March 2024.

According to TruLaw, these legal battles aim to hold accountable those who have contributed to the widespread distribution of PFAS in our ecosystems.

Research and Alternatives

The adverse effects of AFFF have spurred extensive research into eco-friendly firefighting alternatives. Scientists are exploring innovative formulations that can effectively suppress fires without relying on PFAS. 

Some promising avenues include the use of non-toxic foams, sustainable chemicals, and advanced technologies that prioritize both firefighting efficacy and environmental safety. This ongoing research highlights a collective commitment to finding solutions that mitigate the environmental impact of firefighting activities while maintaining public safety.

In conclusion, the proliferation of AFFF has sparked a critical environmental crisis, with PFAS contamination extending into groundwater, aquatic ecosystems, and agricultural lands. Legal actions highlight the accountability of AFFF stakeholders. 

Amidst this, the surge in eco-friendly firefighting research underscores a collective dedication to mitigating environmental harm. The imperative for sustainable alternatives resonates as communities grapple with the far-reaching consequences. 

As we navigate this complex landscape, a holistic approach is vital, emphasizing the urgency of balancing fire safety practices with environmental stewardship. The evolution towards sustainable firefighting methods remains crucial for preserving ecosystems, ensuring public health, and forging a resilient future.